INTRODUCTORY ESSAY. 135 pearance of the country is the same. The rivers which flow towards the Kistna are separated by spurs of a high table- land, .rarely rising into hills, so that the country appears nearly flat, except to the eastward, where it dips suddenly into the plain of the Carnatic. The elevation of JBellary is 1600 feet; Karnul is about 1000 feet; and Cadapah, in the gorge of the Pcnar, where it issues from among the mountains, is only 500 feet above the level of the sea. Another spur from the great peninsular chain forms the southern boundary of the province, separating the district of Coimbator and the basin of the Bhowani river from the upper basin of the Cavery. This range, which attains gene- rally an elevation of nearly 4000 feet, extends in an easterly direction from the eastern slopes of the Nilghiri. Between these two watersheds, the table-land of Mysore forms a gently undulating plain, sloping downwards, from 4000 feet at the base of the mountains, to 8000 at Bangalor, and 2400 at Seringapatam on. the banks of the Cavcry. The highlands* of Mysore sink everywhere abruptly into the plain of the Carnatic, except where the great rivers de- bouche,- and the extremities of the broad flat-topped ranges which form the table-land, when viewed from a little distance, present the appearance of a continuous range of hills parallel to the coast-line, commonly known as the Eastern Ghats. The districts of Bellary, Karnul, and Cadapali, which oc- cupy the northern slope of the central range of Mysore, and the higher parts of the basin of the Tungabudra and the Pe- nar, are usually excluded from Mysore, being known as the Ceded Districts, because they were transferred from the king- dom of Mysore to the Nizam after the war in 1800, and after- wards made over to the British Government in lieu of a money-payment. As they present no physical or botanical features which would make it desirable to consider them as a separate province, we shall include them under the0 general name of Mysore, of which the Kistna will therefore form the northern boundary.